Coronavirus treatment: effective medication, warning of ibuprofen
Several pharmaceutical companies are currently trying to develop a range of medications for the treatment of coronavirus and against the novel infection. The mysterious outbreak of the corona virus in the Chinese city of Wuhan, now known as COVID-19, and its rapid spread to many other countries endanger thousands of lives. The pandemic has driven the development of novel vaccines and antidotes across the biotech industry by both pharmaceutical companies and research institutions.
Coronavirus treatment in development
The first vaccine in China is expected to be ready for clinical trials in late April. Health officials from the World Health Organization (WHO) have also found that the active ingredient remdesivir has been shown to be effective in treating coronavirus. The Chinese National Medical Products Administration has approved the use of favilavir, an antiviral drug, to treat coronaviruses. The drug has been reported to be effective in treating the disease with minimal side effects in a clinical trial of 70 patients. The clinical trial is being conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province.
A total of five drugs and their generics against coronaviruses are currently used by hospitals around the world. As expected, medical professionals use most of the drugs tested to date to treat swine flu – H1N1, as well as against their strains. The European health authorities are contacting their Chinese colleagues about the drastic cases of infection in the EU countries. In addition, they receive new guidelines for dealing with the affected patients every day. There is a protocol for coronavirus treatment available on a number of official medical platforms. The goal is to enable doctors to see in real time the effects of the coronavirus that occur during infection.
In the first stage, when the corona virus is still in the upper respiratory tract, treatment is carried out with the well-known drugs against swine flu and HIV. These have a positive effect on many patients. Doctors affirm that even if pneumonia develops with COVID-19, it does not necessarily result in a fatal outcome. Then the drugs include three other groups of excipients that are effective against AIDS and block the spread of the virus. Many doctors, pharmacists, nurses and virologists from the affected countries have participated in the medical communication and protocol.
Therapies only possible after randomized studies
It is important to emphasize that no antiviral therapy against COVID-19 has worked in humans yet. However, many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are ongoing. For this reason, as many patients as possible should be included. However, the indication of medication is not a recommendation for the use of one or more of them, but rather a means of understanding these therapies. Therefore, doctors are asked to review existing data and draw their conclusions.
Medications for possible avoidance
Health ministries and the WHO have warned of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and cortisone. These are said to be associated with serious forms of COVID-19 in young and healthy people. The rumor spread first to doctors, then to social media. Then the warning was resumed by the French health authorities, Health Minister Olivier Veran and the Director General for Health. For example, these are the very commonly used Nurofen and Diclofenac, which are effective against muscle pain. Consumers should therefore only use medicinal products containing acetaminophen without exceeding the prescribed doses.
However, be careful not to stop selling these products for certain chronic conditions. They can be essential and if your doctor has prescribed ibuprofen or cortisone it is advisable not to stop taking them unless otherwise recommended. The good news is not self-medication, but the sudden discontinuation of these treatments for chronic pathologies as soon as there is no fever or respiratory problems. Also watch out for an overdose of paracetamol. The maximum recommended dose without a doctor's prescription is 3 grams per day, not 4, as is often assumed. The cans should be six hours apart.
The information is currently based only on observations with patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The doctors there report massive doses, which were taken in particular by young test subjects without breathing difficulties. However, it is not known whether patients with severe forms of the disease have taken more anti-inflammatory drugs than others. It is therefore currently difficult to know whether these medicines actually affect the serious forms of the infection.
Coronavirus treatment vaccines and medicines
So here is a list of the most important medications for coronavirus treatment that pharmaceutical companies around the world are developing and which could possibly play a decisive role in the fight against the contagious infection with vaccines or antivirals. For example, favilavir is the first approved corona drug in China. The Chinese National Medical Products Administration has approved its use as an antiviral drug for the treatment of coronaviruses. The drug has been reported to be effective in treating the disease with minimal side effects in a clinical trial of 70 patients.
An intranasal vaccine against COVID-19 is being developed at the clinical stage by the US-based biopharmaceutical company Altimmune. The design and synthesis of the single dose vaccine is complete and animal testing will follow. Scientists are developing the coronavirus vaccine on a platform that resembles a flu shot. The novel coronavirus drugs at various stages of development worldwide are listed below.
Remdesivir (GS-5734) from Gilead Sciences
An anti-Ebola drug developed by Gilead Sciences that has been shown to be ineffective is currently being tested in two randomized clinical trials in Asian countries. The trials will be conducted on 761 patients in a randomized, controlled trial in several hospitals in Wuhan, the epicenter of the novel coronavirus outbreak. The results of the studies are expected to be available in the next few weeks. According to a report in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), remdesivir appeared to have improved clinical status when administered to a coronavirus patient in the United States. The University of Nebraska Medical Center is also conducting clinical trials to test the safety and effectiveness of the drug. The first patient to be given the drug by doctors is an evacuee from the Diamond Princess cruise ship.
Acterma from Roche
China approved the use of Roches Actemra to treat severe coronavirus complications. Medications like this can prevent cytokine storms or immune system overreactions. Researchers see this as the main cause of organ failure, leading to death in some coronavirus patients. Actemra is also being evaluated in a clinical trial in China, which is expected to involve 188 coronavirus patients. The clinical trial is expected to run through May 10.
Medicines for AIDS for coronavirus treatment
Lopinavir, a protease inhibitor, is being studied with ritonavir to treat MERS and SARS coronaviruses. The converted drug is already approved for the treatment of HIV infections under the trade name Kaletra ®. The combination is included in the WHO list of essential medicines. Lopinavir is believed to affect the intracellular processes of coronavirus replication and to show reduced mortality in the MERS non-human primates model. Lopinavir / ritonavir in combination with ribavirin showed a reduced death rate and a milder disease course in an open clinical trial in patients with a 2003 SARS outbreak.
Cipla has also been reported to plan to reuse its HIV drug LOPIMUNE, a combination of the protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, for the treatment of coronavirus. LOPIMUNE, a licensed generic of Kaletra ®, is currently available in packs of 60 tablets containing 200 mg lopinavir and 50 mg ritonavir. Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, donated the HIV drug PREZCOBIX ® (darunavir / cobicistat) to research efforts to find a treatment for COVID-19.
Darunavir is a protease inhibitor sold by Janssen. Anecdotal reports suggest that darunavir may have antiviral activity against COVID-19. However, it is currently only approved for use in combination with other antiviral drugs for therapy in HIV. Janssen has no clinical data to support the use of darunavir in the treatment of coronavirus. The drug is currently being tested in test tubes for possible activities against the infection. Janssen has also partnered with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) to advance the development of a treatment for COVID-19.
Active ingredients in the medication
Chloroquine phosphate is mainly used against malaria, which is caused by four types of pathogens. An extraintestial amebiasis occurs, which is a parasitic disease. However, the drug is only available on prescription because it causes retinopathy with prolonged use. Tamiflu or Oseltamivir only works against diseases caused by the influenza virus. The American Center for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended the use of the common ingredient in the epidemic of the H1N1 and its derivatives. The anti-inflammatory effects of corticosteroids are in decreasing the expansion of blood vessels and suppressing the activity of white blood cells.
Coronavirus treatment of the upper respiratory tract, including fever, runny nose and cough, includes 500 mg chloroquine phosphate in addition to 150 mg oseltamivir The recommended dose should be taken for 5 days. In the event of complications from COVID-19 infection, 800 mg darunavir and 150 mg cobicistat should be taken for two weeks. In addition, doctors use 400 mg atazanavir to treat pneumonia caused by coronavirus.
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